Sunday, January 30, 2011

Palace Square

Palace Square
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Palace Square (Russian: Дворцовая площадь, Dvortsovaya Ploshchad), connecting Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Bridge leading to Vasilievsky Island, is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. It was the setting of many events of worldwide significance, including the Bloody Sunday (1905) and the October Revolution of 1917.
View of the square with the Alexander Column from an open window of the Hermitage Museum in the Winter Palace.
The earliest and most celebrated building on the square is the baroque white-and-azure Winter Palace of Russian tsars (1754-62), which gave the square its name. Although the adjacent buildings are designed in the Neoclassical style, they perfectly match the palace in their scale, rhythm, and monumentality. The opposite, southern side of the square was designed in the shape of an arc by George von Velten in the late 18th century. These plans were executed half a century later, when Alexander I of Russia envisaged the square as a vast monument to the Russian victory over Napoleon and commissioned Carlo Rossi to design the bow-shaped Empire-style Building of the General Staff (1819-29), which centers on a double triumphal arch crowned with a Roman quadriga.
The centre of the square is marked with the Alexander Column (1830-34), designed by Auguste de Montferrand. This red granite column (the tallest of its kind in the world) is 47,5 metres high and weighs some 500 tons. It is set so well that no attachment to the base is needed.
The eastern side of the square is occupied by Alessandro Brullo's building of the Guards Corps Headquarters (1837-43). The western side, however, opens towards Admiralty Square, thus making the Palace Square a vital part of the grand suite of St Petersburg squares.
The square also serves as open-air venue for concerts by international acts, including Andrea Bocelli, Roger Waters, The Rolling Stones, AC/DC, Duran Duran, Anastacia, Elton John, Paul McCartney and Madonna.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Palace Square
References
  • V.I. Pilyavsky. Palace Square in Leningrad. Moscow, 1958.
This page was last modified on 6 October 2010 at 19:35.

Saturday, January 29, 2011

Antonov An 225

Antonov An-225
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An-225 Mriya
The Antonov-225 at Hostomel Airport (Antonov airport), Ukraine
Role
National origin
Manufacturer
First flight
21 December 1988
Status
Operational
Primary user
Produced
1988
Number built
1
Developed from
The Antonov An-225 Mriya (Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-225 Мрія, Russian: Антонов Ан-225 Мрия, Dream, NATO reporting name: 'Cossack') is a strategic airlift cargo aircraft, designed by the Antonov Design Bureau in the 1980s. It is the world's heaviest fixed-wing aircraft. The design, built to transport the Buran orbiter, was an enlargement of the successful An-124 Ruslan. The An-225's name, Mriya (Мрiя) means "Dream" (Inspiration) in Ukrainian.
One An-225 was completed in 1988 and a second An-225 has been partially completed. The one An-225 is in commercial operation carrying oversized payloads.[1]

Development
Space shuttle Buran being carried by the An-225
The Antonov An-225 was designed for the Soviet space program as a replacement for the Myasishchev VM-T. Able to airlift the Energia rocket's boosters and the Buran space shuttle, its mission and objectives are almost identical to that of the United States' Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.[2]
The An-225 first flew on 21 December 1988. The aircraft was on static display at the Paris Air Show in 1989 and it flew during the public days at the Farnborough air show in 1990. Two aircraft were ordered, but only one An-225 (tail number UR-82060[3]) was finished. It can carry ultra-heavy and oversize freight, up to 250,000 kg (550,000 lb) internally,[2] or 200,000 kg (440,000 lb) on the upper fuselage. Cargo on the upper fuselage can be 70 metres (230 ft) long.[4]
A second An-225 was partially built during the late 1980s for the Soviet space program. The second An-225 included a rear cargo door and a redesigned tail with a single vertical stabilizer. It was planned to be more effective for cargo transportation.[5] Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the cancellation of the Buran space program, the lone operational An-225 was placed in storage in 1994.[6] The six Ivchenko Progress engines were removed for use on An-124s, and the second uncompleted An-225 airframe was also stored. The first An-225 was later re-engined and put into service.
By 2000, the need for additional An-225 capacity had become apparent, so the decision was made in September 2006 to complete the second An-225. The second airframe was scheduled for completion around 2008,[7] then delayed. By August 2009, the aircraft had not been completed and work had been abandoned.[1][8]
Design
An-225 main landing gear
Based on Antonov's earlier An-124, the An-225 has fuselage barrel extensions added fore and aft of the wings, which received root extensions to increase span. Two more Ivchenko Progress D-18T turbofan engines were added to the new wing roots, bringing the total to six, and an increased-capacity landing gear system with 32 wheels was designed. The An-124’s rear cargo door and ramp were removed to save weight, and the empennage was changed from a single vertical stabilizer to a twin tail with an oversized horizontal stabilizer. The twin tail was essential to enable the plane to carry large, heavy external loads that would disturb the aerodynamics of a conventional tail. Unlike the An-124, the An-225 was not intended for tactical airlifting and is not designed for short-field operation.[2]
An-225 Ivchenko Progress D-18T turbofan engines
Initially the 225 had a maximum gross weight of 600 tonnes (1,320,000 lb) but the aircraft was modified in 2000-01, at a cost of US$20M, with a reinforced floor that increased the maximum gross weight to 640 tonnes (1,410,000 lb).[9][10][11]
Both the earlier and later takeoff weights establish the An-225 as the world's heaviest aircraft, being heavier than the double-decker Airbus A380 even though Airbus plans to pass the An-225's maximum landing weight with 591.7 tonnes (1,304,000 lb) for the A380.[12] The Hughes H-4 Hercules, known as the "Spruce Goose", had a greater wingspan and a greater overall height, but was 20% shorter, and due to the materials used in its construction, also lighter. In addition, the Hercules only flew once, making the An-225 the largest aircraft in the world to fly multiple times.[13] The An-225 is larger than the Airbus A380 airliner, and also bigger than the Antonov An-124, Boeing 747 Large Cargo Freighter, and Lockheed C-5 Gal
axy, the nearest equivalent heavy cargo aircraft.
Operational history

The An-225 at the 38th Paris International Air and Space Show in 1989
In the late 1980s, efforts were begun by the Soviet government to generate revenue from its military assets. In 1989, a holding company was set up by the Antonov Design Bureau as a heavy airlift shipping corporation under the name "Antonov Airlines", based in Kiev, Ukraine and operating
from London Luton Airport in partnership with Air Foyle HeavyLift.[4][14]
As the Soviet space program was in its last years, the An-225 was considered and accepted to be the prime way to transport the Buran Shuttle.
The company initiated operations with a fleet of four An-124-100s and three Antonov An-12s, but by the late 1990s a need for aircraft larger than the An-124 became apparent. In response, the original An-225 was re-engined, modified for heavy cargo transport, and placed back in service under the management of Antonov Airlines.
Antonov An-225 at Manchester Airport in 2006
On 23 May 2001, the An-225 received its type certificate from the Interstate Aviation Committee Aviation Register (IAC AR).[15] In September 2001, carrying 4 main battle tanks[16] at a record load of 253.82 tonnes (279.79 short tons) of cargo, the An-225 flew at an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) over a closed circuit of 1,000 km (620 mi) at a speed of 763.2 km/h (474.2 mph).[17]
The type's first flight in commercial service departed from Stuttgart, Germany on 3 January 2002, and flew to Thumrait, Oman with 216,000 prepared mea
ls for American military personnel based in the region. This vast number of ready meals was transported on some 375 pallets and weighed 187.5 tons.[18]
The An-225 has since become the workhorse of the Antonov Airlines fleet, transporting objects once thought impossible to move by air, such as locomotives and 150-ton generators. It has become an asset to international relief organizations for its ability to quickly transport huge quantities of emergency supplies during disaster relief operations.[19]
An-225 doing a fly-by

Beginning in June 2003, the An-225, along with An-124s, delivered over 800 tons of equipment to aid humanitarian efforts in Iraq.[20]
The An-225 has also been contracted by the Canadian and U.S. governments to transport military supplies to the Middle East in support of Coalition forces.[19] In November 2004, FAI placed the An-225 in the Guinness Book of Records for its 240 records.
On 11 August 2009, the heaviest single cargo item ever sent via air freight was loaded onto an Antonov 225. At 16.23 metres (53.2 ft) long and 4.27 metres (14.0 ft) wide, the consignment–a generator for a gas power plant in Armenia and its loading frame–weighed in at a record 189.09 tonnes (416,900 lb).[21] Also during 2009, the An-225 was painted in a new blue and yellow paint scheme,[22] after Antonov ceased cooperation with AirFoyle and partnered with Volga-Dnepr in 2006.[2
3]
Antonov An-225 in 2010
In February 2010, the An-225 transported 108 tonnes of construction machinery from Japan to Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic for quake-stricken Haiti.[24]
On 11 June 2010, the An-225 carried the world's longest piece of air cargo, when it flew two new 42-meter wind turbine blades (test subjects) from Tianjin, China to Denmark.[25]
An example of the cost of shipping cargo by An-225 was 266,000 for flying a chimney duct from Denmark to Kazakhstan in 2008.[26]
Operators
Former operators
Specifications (An-225)
A size comparison between four of the largest aircraft, the An-225 (green), the Hughes H-4 Hercules (gold), the Boeing 747-8 (blue), and the Airbus A380-800 (pink).
Data from Vectorsite,[2] Antonov's Heavy Transports[27]
General characteristics
  • Crew: 6
  • Payload: 250,000 kg (550,000 lb)
  • Door dimensions: 440 x 640 cm (14.4 x 21 ft)
  • Length: 84 m (275.6 ft)
  • Wingspan: 88.4 m (290 ft 2 in)
  • Height: 18.1 m (59.3 ft)
  • Wing area: 905 m2 (9,743.7 ft2))
  • Aspect ratio: 8.6
  • Cargo Volume: 1,300 m3 (46,000 cu ft)
  • Empty weight: 285,000 kg (628,315 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 640,000 kg[9][10][11] (1,323,000 lb)
  • Powerplant:ZMKB Progress D-18 turbofans, 229.5 kN (51,600 lbf) each
  • Takeoff run: 3,500 m (11,500 ft) with maximum payload
Performance
An-225, September 2008
Notable appearances in media
See also
Related development
Comparable aircraft
Related lists