Sunday, October 30, 2011

Likhon Ga

Hi friend’s
This is just poem and shayari,
Aik Ghazal Tere Liye Zaror Likhon Ga
Be Hisaab Us Mien Tera Qasoor Likhon Ga
Tu Guftaar Ka Mahir Tu Kirdaar Ka Mahir
Par Husan Ko Tere, Tera Garoor Likhon Ga
Toot Gaye Bachpan Ke Tere Sare Khiloony
Ab Diloon Se Khelna Tera Dastoor Likhonga
Raha Ishq Ka Davaa Tujhe Tamam Umer
Wafa Ki Dehleez Se Tujhe Mafroor Likhon Ga
Khud Sakhta Jo Hai Tera Judai Ka Faisla
Aisay Har Iqdaam Ko Na Manzoor Likhon Ga
Hamien Kehny Ki Aadat Nahien Likhny Ka Shooq Hai
Jazbon Ko Apny Qalam Ki Taseer Likhon Ga
Tera Wajood Mera Wajood Mujhe Aik Sa Lagy
Par Tujhy Mien Khud Se Bohat Door Likhon Ga

Dhananjay Parmar

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Mujh Ko

Hi friend’s
This is just poem and shayari,
Gungunatay Hue Anchal Ki Hawa Deh Mujh Ko
Ungliyaan phair Ke BAloon Main Sulla Deh Mujh Ko
Jis Tarah Faltu Guldaan Paray Rehtay Hain
Apne Ghar Ke Kisi Konay Se Lagga Deh Mujh Ko
Yaad Kar Ke Mujhe Takleef He Hoti Hogii
Aik Kissa Hoon Purana Sa Bhulla Deh Mujh Ko
Doobtay Doobtay Awaaz Teri Sunn Jaoon
Akhiri Baar Tu Sahil Se Sadah Deh Mujh Ko
Main Tere Hijr Main Chup Chaap Na Marr Jaoon Kahin
Main Hoon Saktay Main Kabhii Aa Ke Rulla Deh Mujh Ko
Dekh Main Hogaya Badnaam Kitaboon Ki Tarah
Merii Tasheer Na Kar Ab Tu Jalla Deh Mujh Ko
Rhootna Tera Meri Jaan Liye Jata Hai
Aesay Naraaz Na Ho Hans Ke Dekha Deh Mujh Ko
Aur Kuch Bhi Nahi Manga Mere Malik Tujh Se
Us Ki Galiyoon Main Parii Khaak Banaa Deh Mujh Ko
Log Kehtay Hain Ke Yeh Ishq Niggal Jata Hai
Main Bhi Is Ishq Main Aya Hoon,Dua Deh Mujhe Ko
Yahi Okaat Hai Meri Tere Jeevan Mein Ke Main
Koi Kamzoor Sa Lamha Hoon, Bhulla Deh Mujh Ko

Dhananjay Parmar

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Gumsum C

Hi friend’s
This is just poem and shayari,

gumsum c rehguzar thi , kinara nadi ka tha
pani mein chand , chand mein chehra kisi ka tha
ab zindagi sanbhal k leta hai tera nam
yeh dil k jis ko shoq kabi khudkushi ka tha
kuch abar b they banjh zameen se darey huaye
kuch zaiqa hava mein meri tishnagi ka tha
kehney ko dhoondtey they sabhie apne khad o khaal
warna meri ghazal mein to sab kuch usi ka tha
woh ihtiyaat e jaan thi k be rabti e khayal
saye pe b guman muje admi ka tha
mushkil kahan they tarak e mohabbat k marhalay
aye dil magar saval teri zindagi ka tha
woh jis ki dosti hi mataa e khaloos thi
Mohsin woh shakhs b mera dushman kabi ka tha

Dhananjay Parmar
Dhananjay Parmar

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Wada Tha

Dhananjay Parmar
Dhananjay Parmar
Hi friend’s
This is just poem and shayari,

Most read this post,
kay apne kabi Mohabbat ki hai.sub ne ki ho gi tu kiu na aj man ap ko Mohabbat per aik post send karoon.tu soney,
Aik larka tha,or aik larki thi.wo aik dosry se bohat piyar karty thy.
itfaq se larki ki death ho gyi.marney k baad wo larke ko Gilah karti hai
“Tara wada tha har wadey k pichey
tu muje miley ga her gili har darwazey k pichey
par aik tu hi bewafa nikla,
ik tu hi na tha.marey janazey k pichey”
kuch waqt k bad aik or awaz ai,wo us larke ki thi,larka bola
“Hain mara wada tha her wadey k pichey
main tuje miloon ga her gili,her darwazy k pichey
par aik tu ne hi na mor kr dekha pichey
aik or janaza bi tha tere janazey k pichey”

Main ne jub is ko 1st time read kiya tu marey ander aik ajeeb si kafiyat tari hoi.main nahi janta wo kay tha.mohabbat main ne b ki hai,or muje poetry read karty hoe kaam se kaam 10 year ho gey hain.main kisi aik poet ki poetry ko like nahi karta,maine kabi us sher,ghazal ke poet ka naam read nahi kiya,kiu k muje achi poetry lagao tha,or aj tak meri addat wasi ki wasi hai,ye page ahmad faraz ki poetry ka hai,main bohat kaam unki poetry send ki hai.

Urdu Poet, Late.Ahmad Faraz

Monday, October 10, 2011


Dhananjay Parmar
Dhananjay Parmar

Hi friend’s
This is Medical Information,


Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells.


Cells are the building blocks of living things.
Cancer grows out of normal cells in the body. Normal cells multiply when the body needs them, and die when the body doesn't need them. Cancer appears to occur when the growth of cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly. It can also occur when cells forget how to die.
There are many different kinds of cancers. Cancer can develop in almost any organ or tissue, such as the lung, colon, breast, skin, bones, or nerve tissue.
There are many causes of cancers, including:
  • Benzene and other chemicals
  • Drinking excess alcohol
  • Environmental toxins, such as certain poisonous mushrooms and a type of poison that can grow on peanut plants (aflatoxins)
  • Excessive sunlight exposure
  • Genetic problems
  • Obesity
  • Radiation
  • Viruses
However, the cause of many cancers remains unknown.
The most common cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer.
The three most common cancers in men in the United States are:
In women in the United States, the three most common cancers are:
Some cancers are more common in certain parts of the world. For example, in Japan, there are many cases of stomach cancer, but in the United States, this type of cancer is pretty rare. Differences in diet may play a role.
Some other types of cancers include:


Symptoms of cancer depend on the type and location of the cancer. For example, lung cancer can cause coughing, shortness of breath, or chest pain. Colon cancer often causes diarrhea, constipation, and blood in the stool.
Some cancers may not have any symptoms at all. In certain cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease has reached an advanced stage.
The following symptoms can occur with most cancers:

Exams and Tests

Like symptoms, the signs of cancer vary based on the type and location of the tumor. Common tests include the following:
Most cancers are diagnosed by biopsy. Depending on the location of the tumor, the biopsy may be a simple procedure or a serious operation. Most patients with cancer have CT scans to determine the exact location and size of the tumor or tumors.
A cancer diagnosis is difficult to cope with. It is important, however, that you discuss the type, size, and location of the cancer with your doctor when you are diagnosed. You also will want to ask about treatment options, along with their benefits and risks.
It's a good idea to have someone with you at the doctor's office to help you get through the diagnosis. If you have trouble asking questions after hearing about your diagnosis, the person you bring with you can ask them for you.


Treatment varies based on the type of cancer and its stage. The stage of a cancer refers to how much it has grown and whether the tumor has spread from its original location.
  • If the cancer is confined to one location and has not spread, the most common treatment approach is surgery to cure the cancer. This is often the case with skin cancers, as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon.
  • If the tumor has spread to local lymph nodes only, sometimes these can be removed.
  • If surgery cannot remove all of the cancer, the options for treatment include radiation, chemotherapy, or both. Some cancers require a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • Lymphoma, or cancer of the lymph glands, is rarely treated with surgery. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are most often used to treat lymphoma.
Although treatment for cancer can be difficult, there are many ways to keep up your strength.
If you have radiation treatment, know that:
  • Radiation treatment is painless.
  • Treatment is usually scheduled every weekday.
  • You should allow 30 minutes for each treatment session, although the treatment itself usually takes only a few minutes.
  • You should get plenty of rest and eat a well-balanced diet during the course of your radiation therapy.
  • Skin in the treated area may become sensitive and easily irritated.
  • Side effects of radiation treatment are usually temporary. They vary depending on the area of the body that is being treated.
If you are going through chemotherapy, you should eat right. Chemotherapy causes your immune system to weaken, so you should avoid people with colds or the flu. You should also get plenty of rest, and don't feel as though you have to accomplish tasks all at once.
It will help you to talk with family, friends, or a support group about your feelings. Work with your health care providers throughout your treatment. Helping yourself can make you feel more in control.

Support Groups

The diagnosis and treatment of cancer often causes a lot of anxiety and can affect a person's entire life. There are many resources for cancer patients.
See: Cancer resources

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outlook depends on the type of cancer. Even among people with one type of cancer, the outcome varies depending on the stage of the tumor when they are diagnosed.
Some cancers can be cured. Other cancers that are not curable can still be treated well. Some patients can live for many years with their cancer. Other tumors are quickly life-threatening.

Possible Complications

One complication is that the cancer may spread. Other complications vary with the type and stage of the tumor.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Contact your health care provider if you develop symptoms of cancer.


You can reduce the risk of getting a cancerous (malignant) tumor by:
  • Eating a healthy diet
  • Exercising regularly
  • Limiting alcohol
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Minimizing your exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals
  • Not smoking or chewing tobacco
  • Reducing sun exposure, especially if you burn easily
Cancer screenings, such as mammography and breast examination for breast cancer and colonoscopy for colon cancer, may help catch these cancers at their early stages when they are most treatable. Some people at high risk for developing certain cancers can take medication to reduce their risk.

Alternative Names

Carcinoma; Malignant tumor


Moscow JA, Cowan KH. Biology of cancer. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 187.
Thun MJ. Epidemiology of cancer. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 185.

Update Date: 8/14/2010

Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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This page was last modified on 9 October 2011 at 14:11.
MEDICAL DISCLAIMER - Dhananjay Parmar is not a doctor. This medical information is intended for education, background reading and general interest. The Diseases Database is not a diagnostic or clinical decision-making tool.
Please consult your own licensed physician regarding diagnosis and treatment of any medical condition!
Content is not asserted complete or error free
Information on this database is not a substitute for professional medical advice, competent clinical examination or an healthcare professional's knowledge
The Diseases Database is designed for physicians, other clinical healthcare workers and students of these professions; we make no especial provision for 'lay' readers albeit they are welcome
We do not offer personalised medical advice or drug information
We do not enter into correspondence on any individual's case history or clinical condition

Dhananjay Parmar
Dhananjay Parmar

Sunday, October 9, 2011

Brain Tumors

Information About Brain Tumors
Symptoms & Diagnosis
A brain tumor takes up space within the skull and can interfere with normal brain activity. It can increase pressure in the brain, shift the brain or push it against the skull, and/or invade and damage nerves and healthy brain tissue. The location of a brain tumor influences the type of symptoms that occur. Identifying the presence of a brain tumor is the first step in determining a course of treatment.
1.      What are the symptoms of a brain tumor?
Brain tumors may have a variety of symptoms ranging from headache to stroke. Different parts of the brain control different functions, so symptoms will vary depending on the tumor's location. Brain tumors are great mimics of other neurological disorders, and many of the common symptoms could indicate other medical conditions. The best way to determine if you or someone you know has a brain tumor is to have a doctor perform a type of brain scan called an MRI or a scan called a CT scan It is sometimes hard to know whether a CT scan or MRI should be done if someone you know has some of the symptoms and signs noted below, but it is important to know that these studies will usually establish whether a brain tumor is behind them. If you are truly concerned, be sure to discuss your concerns with a physician.
Possible symptoms of a brain tumor include:
o    A new seizure in an adult
o    Gradual loss of movement or sensation in an arm or leg
o    Unsteadiness or imbalance, especially if it is associated with headache
o    Loss of vision in one or both eyes, especially if the vision loss is more peripheral
o    Double vision, especially if it is associated with headache
o    Hearing loss with or without dizziness
o    Speech difficulty of gradual onset
Other symptoms may also include nausea or vomiting that is most severe in the morning, confusion and disorientation, and memory loss.
The following symptoms are usually not caused by a brain tumor, but may sometimes be:
o    Headache: Although headaches are probably the most common symptom of a brain tumor, most people with headaches – even persistent or severe headaches – do not have a tumor. However, some kinds of headaches are particularly worrisome. A steady headache that is worse in the morning than the afternoon, a persistent headache that is associated with nausea or vomiting, or a headache accompanied by double vision, weakness, or numbness all suggest a possible tumor.
o    A change in behavior: The development of an "I don't care" attitude, memory loss, loss of concentration, and general confusion may all be subtle signs. In this case, an evaluation by a neurologist may be an important step, but a CT or MRI will also help.
o    Infertility or abnormal cessation of menstruation (also known as amenorrhea)
o    Troubles that seem to be caused by other diseases or concerns: A seizure that results from a fall or the discovery of what appears to be a subarachnoid hemorrhage (a type of stroke) may actually be caused by tumors.
If you are concerned that you or someone you know might have a brain tumor, call your doctor. If symptoms persist, an MRI or CT scan can facilitate the diagnosis. Early detection and treatment may increase survival.
With grateful acknowledgment of the content provided by Peter McL. Black, M.D., Ph.D., Neurosurgeon-in-Chief at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Children's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
2.      How is a brain tumor diagnosed?
Identifying a brain tumor usually involves a neurological examination, brain scans, and/or an analysis of the brain tissue. Doctors use the diagnostic information to classify the tumor from the least aggressive (benign) to the most aggressive (malignant). In most cases, a brain tumor is named for the cell type of origin or its location in the brain. Identifying the type of tumor helps doctors determine the most appropriate course of treatment.
A neurological examination is a series of tests to measure the function of the patient s nervous system and physical and mental alertness. If responses to the exam are not normal, the doctor may order a brain scan or refer the patient to a neurologist or neurosurgeon, who will then order a brain scan.
A brain scan is a picture of the internal structures in the brain. A specialized machine takes a scan in much the same way a digital camera takes a photograph. Using computer technology, a scan compiles an image of the brain by photographing it from various angles.
Some types of scans use a contrast agent (or contrast dye), which helps the doctor see the difference between normal and abnormal brain tissue. The contrast agent is injected into a vein and flows into brain tissue. Abnormal or diseased brain tissue absorbs more dye than normal healthy tissue. The most common scans used for diagnosis are as follows:
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is a scanning device that uses magnetic fields and computers to capture images of the brain on film. It does not use x-rays. It provides pictures from various planes, which permit doctors to create a three-dimensional image of the tumor. The MRI detects signals emitted from normal and abnormal tissue, providing clear images of most tumors.
CT or CAT Scan (Computed Tomography) combines sophisticated x-ray and computer technology. CT can show a combination of soft tissue, bone, and blood vessels. CT images can determine some types of tumors, as well as help detect swelling, bleeding, and bone and tissue calcification. Usually, iodine is the contrast agent used during a CT scan.
PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography) provides a picture of the brain s activity, rather than its structure, by measuring the rate at which a tumor absorbs glucose (a sugar). The patient is injected with deoxyglucose that has been labeled with radioactive markers. The PET scan measures the brain s activity and sends this information to a computer, which creates a live image. Doctors use PET scans to see the difference between scar tissue, recurring tumor cells, and necrosis (cells destroyed by radiation treatment).
There some drawbacks to these diagnostic tests, however. Please refer to What else should I know about diagnostic tests? for more information.
A biopsy is a surgical procedure in which a sample of tissue is taken from the tumor site and examined under a microscope. The biopsy will provide information on types of abnormal cells present in the tumor. The purpose of a biopsy is to discover the type and grade of a tumor. A biopsy is the most accurate method of obtaining a diagnosis.
An open biopsy is done during a craniotomy. A craniotomy involves removing a piece of the skull in order to get access to the brain. After the tumor is resected (completely removed) or debulked (partially removed), the bone is usually put back into place. A closed biopsy (also called a stereotactic or needle biopsy) may be performed when the tumor is in an area of the brain that is difficult to reach. In a closed biopsy, the neurosurgeon drills a small hole into the skull and passes a narrow hollow needle into the tumor to remove a sample of tissue.
Once a sample is obtained, a pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope and writes a pathology report containing an analysis of the brain tissue. Sometimes the pathologist may not be able to make an exact diagnosis. This may be because more than one grade of tumor cells exists within the same tumor. In some cases, the tissue may be sent to another institution for additional analysis.
3.      What else should I know about diagnostic tests?
Because an MRI uses magnetic fields, people who have metal implanted in their body in any form should let the doctor know about it before scheduling the procedure. An MRI may not be an option for these patients because the intense magnetic fields can damage some types of implanted medical devices. Patients should advise the doctor if they have a pacemaker, cardiac monitor, surgical clip, or facial tattoos.
In a standard MRI scan, the patient lies on a narrow table, which slides through a long, cylindrical tube with a narrow opening. Although there is enough room for the patient s body inside the cylinder, the patient will not be able to move around. The scan takes approximately 15-45 minutes. During the scan, the patient will hear loud banging sounds, caused by the electronics within the machine. Patients may request earplugs to reduce noise. Some people find the MRI claustrophobic and ask for a sedative beforehand to relax. Other people request an open MRI.
An open MRI machine does not have a cylinder, so the patient is not enclosed. The procedure lasts approximately 45 minutes. There is some discussion among doctors concerning the quality of the images of an open MRI compared to the standard or closed MRI.
Contrast agents may cause allergic reactions in some patients. Gadolinium, the contrast agent used with an MRI, may cause temporary headaches but has no other known side effects. Iodine is the contrast agent most commonly used for CT scanning. If you know you are allergic to iodine, tell your doctor. Allergic reactions can include rashes, a warm sensation, or, in rare cases, difficulty breathing.
CT scans involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which is known to cause cancer. This is a concern for people who may need multiple CT scans and for children, because they are more sensitive to radiation than adults. It is wise for people who have had frequent x-ray exams and parents of children who have brain tumors to keep a record of their x-ray history. This information can help doctors make informed decisions and minimize radiation over-exposure.
4.      How is a pathology report used to diagnose brain tumors?
A pathology report contains the analysis of brain tissue taken at the time of a craniotomy or needle biopsy. A pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope. Further tests or analysis may be performed on the tumor tissue. Then the pathologist will write a pathology report, which provides the information needed to make a diagnosis of the tumor type.
Sometimes the pathologist may not be able to make an exact diagnosis. This may be because more than one grade of tumor cells exists within the same tumor. [If cells of only one grade are removed and classified during a biopsy, it is possible that the tumor grade will be misdiagnosed. This is called a sampling error.] In some cases, the tissue may be sent to another institution for additional input.
5.      How can I find out more about the location and type of tumor in my brain?
The NBTS Interactive Tour of the Brain illustrates parts of the brain and their functions.
This page was last modified on 8 October 2011 at 18:14.

Dhananjay Parmar
Dhananjay Parmar

Thursday, October 6, 2011

Advances In Hematology

Advances In Hematology
Starting with the concept of blood circulation, which was introduced in 1628, numerous advances have been made in the field of hematology that have significantly improved the lives of patients with hematologic disorders and blazed a trail for advances in other fields. In the last 50 years alone, substantial strides have been made in the research, treatment, and prevention of blood diseases. Listed here are just a few, but those not mentioned are no less important. As past experience has shown us, even some of the most basic research taking place today has the potential to lead to promising life-saving treatments in the future.
A selection of major advances follows. To learn more about some of the top breakthroughs made in the field, please read "50 Years in Hematology: Research That Revolutionized Patient Care." To request copies of the brochure, contact the Webmaster.
Major Advances in Leukemia
  • Cure of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
    ALL was fatal for every child who was diagnosed in the 1960s, but today, after new combinations of drugs were developed and aggressive treatment of the brain and spinal fluid were incorporated, approximately 80 percent of children with the disease are cured. Learn more.
  • Targeted Therapy (“smart” drugs) for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
    In the 1950s the only treatment for CML was radiation of the spleen, granting patients about 30 months of survival. The identification of the mutation in the BCR-ABL caused by a specific chromosomal translocation (when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another) led to the development of imatinib, a gene-targeting drug that is the paradigm of a new generation of “smart” drugs. Imatinib is the first drug that has been designed to be so specific that it targets and corrects only the molecular defect that leads to CML (unlike chemotherapy, which targets all rapidly dividing cells, both diseased and normal), sparing patients most of the toxic side-effects that usually come with chemotherapy. Treated with this non-toxic oral drug, more than 75 percent of patients diagnosed with CML now achieve a durable complete cytogenetic remission. This development introduced a new way to think about treating cancer patients. With the disease in long-term remission (inactive, but not necessarily cured) many CML patients can now expect a normal life span. Learn more.
  • Targeted Therapy for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)
    APL was once described as the most malignant (rapidly worsening) form of acute leukemia. Leukemia cells contain molecules that disrupt normal function of the hemostatic system (which controls the flow of blood) and, as a result of initial treatments that triggered the release of these molecules, many APL patients bled to death before the chemotherapy they were given had a chance to work. A simple and effective therapy for this process was established in the 1980s that allowed chemotherapy drugs to kill the leukemia cells without initiating the deadly reaction. In combination with chemotherapy, targeted treatment has significantly improved survival in patients with APL and raised remission rates to about 85 percent. Today, the treatment of APL has become a model for treating cancer with targeted therapy.
Two major advances were required to develop an effective treatment for APL: the understanding of how and what causes the blood to clot (hemostasis) and the development of targeted therapy (as described for CML above).
  • Improved Survival in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
    More than 13,000 new cases of AML will be diagnosed in the United States this year. Without treatment, AML can progress quickly and become fatal in just a few months. However, over the past 30 years, new targeted therapies and aggressive chemotherapy have dramatically increased the rate of patients who stay in remission for years or are cured. Today, the initial remission rate is approximately 80 percent.
Major Advances in Lymphoma and Lymphoid Malignancies
  • Cure of Hodgkin Lymphoma
    Today, many patients survive Hodgkin lymphoma. Advancements in radiation therapy and chemotherapy have helped transform this once fatal disorder into a routinely cured disease. More than 80 percent of patients are cured after primary treatment, and the success of treating Hodgkin lymphoma has created hope for curing other forms of cancer. Learn more.
  • Immunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been increasing since the 1970s, making it the fifth most common cancer in the United States. Recent years have seen the development of promising immunotherapy treatments (which stimulate the body’s immune system to fight disease) for patients, increasing survival rates. Studies have shown that five-year survival without recurrence of the lymphoma signals a high likelihood of cure. During the 1960s only 31 percent of patients reached that benchmark. Today, that number has more than doubled to 64 percent.
  • Improved Therapy and Survival in Multiple Myeloma
    There will be more than 19,000 new cases of multiple myeloma this year, and approximately 34 percent of patients survive five years after diagnosis. Unfortunately, there is not yet a cure; however, thanks to advancements in stem cell transplantation and treatment therapies, patients are living longer, healthier lives than they were 30 years ago.
Major Advances in Bleeding and Clotting
  • Development of Effective Treatments for Blood Clots
    Diseases such as heart attacks and strokes arise from clots that form in our blood vessels. These disorders are some of the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, developments in antithrombotic therapy (which prevents or treats clots) have had a huge impact on health. New antithrombotic treatments have lowered the risk of blood clots in leg veins by more than 70 percent, and deaths from heart attacks have been reduced by around 50 percent. Learn more.
  • Development of Clotting Factor Concentrates for Hemophilia Therapy
    For much of the 1960s, the only treatment for hemophilia was to give the patient large volumes of frozen plasma in order to stop bleeding episodes. Generally, children would have to spend three days in the hospital with this type of treatment, and many were reluctant to tell their parents about their injuries, further delaying treatment and gradually leading to chronic joint disease with crippling deformities. Today, clotting factor concentrates are portable and easily stored. Best of all, clotting factor concentrates can be used to treat bleeding episodes without a visit to the hospital. Learn more.
  • Improved Transfusion Therapy Through Screening for Infectious Agents
    In the 1980s patients with hemophilia lived in fear of contracting viruses such as HIV and hepatitis B through the regular blood transfusions they needed to manage the disease. Now, thanks to new recombinant DNA-derived technologies, safe and effective factor concentrates are available, allowing those with hemophilia to treat the bleeding disorder without the constant fear of viral infection. In addition, the development of highly sensitive techniques to screen for viruses has yielded exceptionally safe blood products so that those receiving transfusions can do so with unprecedented confidence. The hematology community continues to improve outcomes and manage risks related to transfusion. Learn more.
Major Advances in Genetic Diseases
  • Effective Prenatal Diagnosis of Abnormal Hemoglobins
    Sickle cell disease and thalassemia are among the most common genetic diseases in the United States. Before 1983, there was no national neonatal screening program to detect either disorder. Today, newborns with these diseases greatly benefit from early detection. Those diagnosed with sickle cell disease have a greater rate of survival than children diagnosed later in life.
  • Development of Diagnostic Techniques to Prevent Stroke in Sickle Cell Disease
    Despite progress in understanding the causes of sickle cell disease, the health of patients with this disease was largely ignored until the 1970s. During the 1980s and 1990s, several studies worked to improve the quality of life for these patients. In 1998, transcranial screening allowed doctors to identify sickle cell patients at risk for stroke and treat them with blood transfusions to prevent stroke.
Major Advances in Stem Cell Research
  • Development of Successful Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
    Today, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important approach for treating blood and bone marrow disorders, as well as certain types of cancer. The earliest work with HSCT began in the 1950s. By the 1960s this treatment was successfully used in patients with end-stage leukemia. Subsequent research in this area has led to improved transplantation techniques and improved survival rates for a number of diseases. Learn more.
Major Advances in Anemia
  • Cloning of Erythropoietin and Development of Recombinant Epo Clinical UseMore than 50 years ago, patients suffering from anemia due to chemotherapy, chronic kidney disease, AIDS, or other disorders were dependent on frequent blood transfusions in order to replenish their red blood cells. In between transfusions, when their red blood cell counts dropped, they would suffer from weakness, fatigue, and shortness of breath. In the 1950s and 1960s scientists conclusively showed that a hormone in the body, erythropoietin, was responsible for regulating red cell production. Twenty years later, researchers developed a nearly identical, synthetic version of that hormone, known as epoetin alfa (Epo), that could be mass-produced and administered by injection under the skin. Today, millions of patients worldwide have benefited from Epo, one of the most widely used drugs created through recombinant DNA technology. Epo has allowed them to live active lives without the inconvenience and risk of repeated transfusions. Learn more.
  • Immunotherapy for Aplastic Anemia
    Aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that can be traced back to 1888. In the past, severe aplastic anemia was fatal to nearly half of all patients regardless of treatment, but with the development of immunosuppressive therapy combined with other treatments, survival rates have substantially improved, and more than 60 percent of patients experience successful responses to immunotherapy.

This page was last modified on 6 October 2011 at 18:46.