Tuesday, November 29, 2011


Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) is an institution which provides a number of support and service functions primarily for European observers of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It was established in 1984 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), and is located at the ESO headquarters in Garching bei München, Germany.
The ST-ECF provides detailed technical information about the HST and its science instruments, supports European astronomers who are preparing HST observing proposals and coordinates the development of computer software tuned to the specific data analysis needs of HST users. In all these duties the ST-ECF staff maintain close contacts with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, which is charged with the scientific operation of the HST observatory.
The ST-ECF is headed by Robert (Bob) Fosbury. Deputy is Jeremy Walsh.
User Support
Founded before the era of the internet and widely available computer resources the ST-ECF was founded with user support for European astronomers as the main goal. When internet connections across the Atlantic and powerful computers became the mainstay, the focus of the organization shifted towards data product and dedicated instrument science support.
Instrument science
The ST-ECF is actively engaged in software development in many areas related to HST data calibration, analysis and visualisation for especially the Hubble instruments Faint Object Spectrograph, STIS, and Advanced Camera for Surveys. For example:
·         aXe - Slitless Spectroscopy Extraction software
·         SLIM: A Slitless Spectroscopy Simulator for ACS
·         The STIS Spectrograph calibration enhancement project (done by the Instrument Physical Modeling Group)
·         NICMOSlook and Calnic C
·         Lucy-Hook coaddition method
Science archive
Together with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) the ST-ECF operates and maintains the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility from where all the scientific data collected by the Hubble Space Telescope can be accessed by the public. In collaboration with the HST archives at the STScI and the CADC[disambiguation needed  ] data products and access methods are continuously improved to assure the best possible science data for astronomers around the world. Currently this includes work on the Virtual Observatory, On-The-Fly Calibration, and B Associations. Earlier work pioneered projects like Astrovirtel and Astrophysical Virtual Observatory.
Public outreach and education
One of the groups at the ST-ECF is the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre (HEIC), which, since 1999, has been the leading Hubble outreach activities group in Europe. HEIC's mission statement is to fulfill the Hubble Space Telescope outreach and education tasks for the European Space Agency.
Over the past few years HEIC has become a very distinguished communication office of experts using the newest software and techniques. The European Hubble office has produced large amounts of astronomical material - press releases, images, brochures, web pages, books etc. - suitable both for educational purposes and wider public consumption. HEIC provides a well-assorted archive that is publicly available on its web page.
The work is centred on the production of news and photo releases that highlight interesting Hubble science results and images. These are often European in origin, and so not only increase the awareness of European Space Agency’s Hubble share (15%), but the contribution of European scientists to the observatory. Furthermore the group produces video releases, innovative educational material, CD-ROMs, brochures, posters, as well as DVDs and museum information kiosks, and much more.
The Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre is headed by the science communication specialist Lars Lindberg Christensen and the leading graphic designer is Martin Kornmesser.
All publicised material can be found on spacetelescope.org. The group is home to the FITS Liberator project and the "Hubble - 15 Years of Discovery" project that also led to the book Hubble - 15 Years of Discovery.
External links
·         STECF website
·         ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive
This page was last modified on 20 July 2011 at 06:17.

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Paranal Observatory

Paranal Observatory
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paranal Observatory

Paranal Observatory is an astronomical observatory located on Cerro Paranal at 2,635 m altitude (120 km south of Antofagasta, Chile) and operated by the European Southern Observatory. The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the largest telescope on Paranal, actually composed of four separate 8.2 m telescopes. In addition the four main telescopes can combine their light to make a fifth instrument, the VLTI, Very Large Telescope Interferometer. Four auxiliary telescopes of 1.8m each are being added to the VLTI to make it available when the main telescopes are being used for other projects. The first two of these were installed in early 2004 and 2005.
The site also houses the 2.5m VLT Survey Telescope and 4m VISTA survey telescope with wider fields of view for surveying large areas of sky uniformly.


Very Large Telescope

Main article: Very Large Telescope
The Very Large Telescope (VLT) consists of four 8.2 m telescopes operating in the visible and infrared. These telescopes, along with 4 smaller Auxiliary telescopes, are also combined to operate as an optical interferometer on certain nights of the year. All of the 8.2m telescopes have adaptive optics and a full suite of instruments.

VISTA Survey Telescope

Main article: VISTA (telescope)
VISTA is the Visible & Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy. A 4 m telescope with a wide field of view, that will focus on infrared surveys of the sky. VISTA was built close to ESO's VLT by a consortium of 18 UK universities led by Queen Mary, University of London it was handed over to the European Southern Observatory in December 2009.

VLT Survey Telescope (VST)

Main article: VLT Survey Telescope
The VLT Survey Telescope or VST is a 2.6m telescope with a wide field imager intended to aid the VLT in its scientific aims.

Other Buildings

As well as the telescopes, control buildings and maintenance facilities, Paranal has a Residencia (ESO Hotel) which provides accommodation for staff and visitors. This is located 200 m lower and 3 km from the telescopes. It is built half into the mountain with the concrete coloured to blend into the landscape. It has gym facilities, a swimming pool, a restaurant and two gardens. The construction was decorated by the Chilean architect Paula Gutiérrez Erlandsen, Marchioness of la Pica.[1]

The Garden of the Residencia (ESO Hotel).

Paranal Observatory including the basecamp and the Residencia.

Popular culture

The VLT hotel, the Residencia, served as a backdrop for part of the 2008 James Bond film Quantum of Solace.


Aerial view

Paranal platform


The platform as night sets

Observing the center of the Milky Way using the laser guide star facility at Yepun, one of the four Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope (VLT)

The four main Very Large Telescope units, as well the four auxiliary telescopes

At dawn the telescope enclosures of the Very Large Telescopes close for the day

Early morning on Paranal

360-degree Panorama of the southern sky above the Paranal platform


External links

·         Paranal Observatory
·         ESO
·         VLT Project
·         VLTI, Very Large Telescope Interferometer

This page was last modified on 24 October 2011 at 21:29.
Credit : http://en.wikipedia.org



Sunday, November 20, 2011

Yeh Pal Pal

Hi friend’s
This is just poem and shayari,

Yeh pal pal ka chalna, fasila khatam na karega,
Tum kitna bhi chaho, tumhe woh kal na milega!
Yeh koi gaata hai, ya namaaz padta hai,
Tum kitna bhi chaho, tumhe alag khuda na milega!
Yeh guzarti hui raat hai, ya nikalti hui sehar,
Tum kitna bhi chaho, tumhe humsafar na milega!
Yeh Baarish ki boondein hain, ya aankhon ke aansoon,
Tum kitna bhi chaho, inhe thaamne wala na milega!
Yeh dil ke tukde hain, ya aap ki yaadein,
Tum kitna bhi chaho, tumhe marham na milega!
Yeh dil mein armaan hain ya sulagte hue sholey,
Tum kitna bhi chaho, tumhe sehra mein paani na milega!
Yeh kaisi uljhan ban gayee hai, dil ki dhadkan,
Tum kitna bhi chaho, tumhe sukoon na milega!!

Friday, November 18, 2011


List of cities with more than one airport
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Many cities contain more than one airport, typically to avoid congestion, and where there may be factors preventing expansion to existing airports. In other cities, multiple airports may be built to cater for specific uses, such as between international and domestic flights. The following lists cities which are served by more than one airport offering scheduled passenger services. Military airbases (without passenger service) and airports serving only charted flights are not included.
The main disadvantage of multiple airports is that there is almost never a good way to connect between two airports as part of a connection between flights. For this reason, places such as Atlanta that handle many connecting traffic flows do not have a second airport, nor do they need one.

Six, five and four airports

Within city limits?
Distance and Direction
from city center
Six Airports
59 km (37 mi) southeast
498,359 (2008)
37 km (23 mi) southeast
Domestic, seaplane only
Mixed, primary
Domestic, seaplane only
United Kingdom, England, Greater London, London
46 km (29 mi) south
24 km (15 mi) west
Scheduled, primary
48 km (30 mi) north
48 km (30 mi) northeast
69 km (43 mi) east
19 km (12 mi) southeast
Mixed, primary
81 km (50 mi) east
173,346 (2005)
8 km (5.0 mi) west
88 km (55 mi) north
970,000 (2007 Est.)
53 km (33 mi) north
901,831 (2008)
Five Airports
25 km (16 mi) north
5,689,291 (2006)
70 km (43 mi) southeast
61 km (38 mi) east
7,049,904 (2006)
58 km (36 mi) south
3,004,005 (2006)
27 km (17 mi) southwest
61,041,066 (2006)
Mixed, primary
Four Airports
Australia, Victoria, Melbourne
50 km (31 mi) southwest
Low cost carrier, domestic
11 km (6.8 mi) northwest
Freight, regional
20 km (12 mi) northwest
Mixed, primary
22 km (14 mi) southeast
22 km (14 mi) northwest
Domestic, seaplane only
Domestic, seaplane only
22 km (14 mi) northwest
Mixed, primary
42 km (26 mi) north
Mixed, primary
100 km (62 mi) south
Low-cost, cargo
100 km (62 mi) west
United States, Washington, Seattle
Boeing Field (King County International Airport)
8 km (5.0 mi) south
19 km (12 mi) northeast
Mixed, seaplane only
Mixed, seaplane only
23 km (14 mi) south
Mixed, primary

Three airports
·         Boston, United States
o    Logan International Airport (primary)
·         Chicago, United States
o    O'Hare International Airport (primary)
·         Denver, United States
o    Denver International Airport (primary commercial)
o    Centennial Airport (main general aviation)
o    Front Range Airport (minor general aviation)
·         Kiev, Ukraine
o    Kiev Zhuliany Airport (domestic)
o    Gostomel Airport (cargo)
·         Las Vegas, United States
o    McCarran International Airport (primary commercial)
o    North Las Vegas Airport (main general aviation)
o    Henderson Executive Airport (reliever airport for McCarran, minor general aviation)
·         Miami, United States
o    Miami International Airport (primary, 50% international)
o    Palm Beach International Airport (serves Metro area)
·         Milan, Italy
o    Malpensa Airport (primary)
o    Orio al Serio Airport (low-cost)
·         Moscow, Russia
o    Sheremetyevo International Airport (mostly international)
o    Vnukovo International Airport (mostly domestic)
·         Osaka, Japan
o    Kansai International Airport (mixed, primary)
o    Osaka International Airport (domestic, primary)
o    Kobe Airport
·         Oslo, Norway
o    Oslo Airport, Gardermoen (primary)
o    Sandefjord Airport, Torp (low cost carriers)
o    Moss Airport, Rygge (low cost carriers)
·         Paris, France
·         Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
o    Santos Dumont Airport (mostly domestic)
·         San Francisco, United States
·         São Paulo, Brazil
o    Congonhas-São Paulo Airport (mostly domestic)
o    São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (mostly international)
·         Toronto, Canada
Two airports
·         Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
o    Albuquerque International Sunport (primary commercial)
o    Double Eagle II Airport (general aviation)
·         Alexandria, Egypt
o    Borg El Arab Airport (primary)
·         Amman, Jordan
o    Amman Civil Airport (general)
·         Bangkok, Thailand
o    Suvarnabhumi Airport (primary)
·         Beijing, People's Republic of China:
·         Belfast, United Kingdom
·         Belo Horizonte, Brazil
o    Tancredo Neves International Airport (International/Domestic)
·         Berlin, Germany
o    Berlin Schönefeld Airport (to become primary in 2011 - to be renamed)
o    Berlin Tegel Airport (primary - to close in 2012)
·         Brussels, Belgium
o    Brussels Airport (primary)
o    Brussels South Charleroi Airport (Situated in Charleroi, low-cost)
·         Bucharest, Romania:
·         Buenos Aires, Argentina
o    Aeroparque Jorge Newbery (mostly domestic)
·         Copenhagen, Denmark
o    Copenhagen Airport (primary)
o    Roskilde Airport (business, general aviation)
·         Curitiba, Brazil
o    Bacacheri Airport (business, general aviation)
·         Dallas, Texas, United States
·         Edmonton, Canada
·         Frankfurt, Germany
o    Frankfurt Airport (primary)
·         Glasgow, United Kingdom
·         Gothenburg, Sweden
o    Gothenburg City Airport (low-cost carriers and business)
·         Houston, Texas, United States
·         Islamabad, Pakistan
·         Istanbul, Turkey
·         Jakarta, Indonesia
·         Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
·         Manila, Philippines
·         Minsk, Belarus
o    Minsk International Airport (primary)
o    Minsk-1
·         Montreal, Canada
·         Mugla, Turkey
·         Orlando, Florida, United States
·         Ottawa, Canada
·         Phoenix, Arizona, United States
o    Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (domestic)
·         Reykjavík, Iceland
o    Reykjavík Airport (domestic)
·         Rome, Italy
·         Sapporo, Japan
o    New Chitose Airport (primary)
o    Okadama Airport (domestic)
·         Seoul, South Korea
o    Gimpo International Airport (mostly domestic)
·         Shanghai, People's Republic of China
o    Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport (mostly domestic)
o    Shanghai Pudong International Airport (mostly international)
·         Singapore, Singapore
o    Singapore Changi Airport (primary)
·         Sydney, Australia
o    Bankstown Airport (business, general aviation)
o    Sydney Airport (primary)
·         Taipei, Taiwan
o    Taipei Songshan Airport (domestic)
·         Tehran, Iran
o    Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport (mostly international)
o    Mehrabad International Airport (mostly domestic)
·         Tel Aviv, Israel
o    Ben Gurion International Airport (mostly international)
o    Sde Dov Airport (mostly domestic)
·         Tokyo, Japan
o    Narita International Airport (mostly international)
o    Haneda Airport (mostly domestic)
·         Ulyanovsk, Russia
o    Ulyanovsk Vostochny Airport (international)
o    Ulyanovsk Baratayevka Airport (domestic)
·         Venice, Italy
See also
This page was last modified on 29 October 2011 at 21:54.